Immunization Also called: Vaccination

Shots may hurt a little, but the diseases they can prevent are a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against things like measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children.

Your immune system helps your body fight germs by producing substances to combat them. Once it does, the immune system “remembers” the germ and can fight it again. Vaccines contain germs that have been killed or weakened. When given to a healthy person, the vaccine triggers the immune system to respond and thus build immunity. 

Before vaccines, people became immune only by actually getting a disease and surviving it. Immunizations are an easier and less risky way to become immune. 


Doctor Feel-Bad: Why Are So Many Doctors Miserable?

Doctor Feel-Bad: Why Are So Many Doctors Miserable?

Doctoring is often a thankless profession and one that comes with huge levels of stress, especially for doctors who constantly deal with terminal illness and death. So it’s little wonder so many doctors are depressed.

Doctor Boo-Hoo

Doctors are less than positive about their profession.

9 in 10

Physicians who wouldn’t recommend young people go into medicine (1)


Doctors who are contemplating retirement within the next five years because of changes to the U.S. healthcare system (1)

1 in 2

Physicians who believe their relationships with patients will suffer due to pressures to increase patient volume (1)

Overall job satisfaction by specialty (2)

Dermatology: 80%

Radiology: 72%

Oncology: 70%

Gastroenterology: 69%

Ophthalmology: 67%

Infectious disease: 66%

Plastic surgery: 66%

Anesthesiology: 65%

Orthopedic surgery: 65%

Psychiatry: 65%

Rheumatology: 65%

Emergency medicine: 63%

Urology: 63%

Cardiology: 62%

Pediatrics: 62%

Diabetes/endocrinology: 61%

Neurology: 60%

General surgery: 58%

Nephrology: 57%

Obstetrics/gynecology: 57%

Pulmonology: 57%

Primary care: 54%

Suicide & Depression

Doctors have higher rates of suicide and depression than the general population.

About 1 per day

Doctors who commit suicide (3)

Suicides per 10,000 people (4) 

General population: 12.3

Doctors: 40

Female doctors have more than double the rate of depression of all women. (3)

Likelihood of suicide by profession relative to general population (5) 

Doctors: 1.87

Dentists: 1.67

Finance: 1.51

Realtors: 1.38

Electricians: 1.36

Police: 1.35

Lawyers: 1.33

Farm workers: 1.32

Pharmacists: 1.29

Scientists: 1.28

What Ails Them

The medical profession has unique challenges not found in other occupations. (6, 7)

Complex payment and insurance rules and regulations.

Public perception of unfairly high salaries.

Common belief that medical profession wants people to be sick.

Public blame of doctors for issues outside their control, like lab fees and other costs.

Lack of time to spend with patients.

Burnout and exhaustion.

Lack of family time.

Fear of patient death.

Dealing with extremes of human emotion.

Access to drugs and intimate knowledge of lethality.

Extremely high levels of educational debt.


Poor diet can lead to blindness, case study shows

An extreme case of “fussy” or “picky” eating caused a young patient’s blindness, according to a new case report published today in Annals of Internal Medicine.

The University of Bristol researchers who examined the case recommend clinicians consider nutritional optic neuropathy in any patients with unexplained vision symptoms and poor diet, regardless of BMI, to avoid permanent vision loss.

Nutritional optic neuropathy is a dysfunction of the optic nerve which is important for vision. The condition is reversible, if caught early. But, left untreated, it can lead to permanent structural damage to the optic nerve and blindness.

In developed countries like the UK, the most common causes of nutritional optic neuropathy are bowel problems or drugs that interfere with the absorption of various important nutrients from the stomach. Purely dietary causes are less common because food supply is good, but elsewhere in the world, poverty, war and drought are linked to malnutrition and higher rates of nutritional optic neuropathy.

Clinician scientists from Bristol Medical School and the Bristol Eye Hospital examined the case of a teenage patient who first visited his GP complaining of tiredness. The link between his nutritional status and vision was not picked up until much later, and by then, his visual impairment had become permanent.

Aside from being a “fussy eater,” the patient had a normal BMI and height and no visible signs of malnutrition and took no medications. Initial tests showed macrocytic anemia and low vitamin B12 levels, which were treated with vitamin B12 injections and dietary advice. When the patient visited the GP a year later, hearing loss and vision symptoms had developed, but no cause was found. By age 17, the patient’s vision had progressively worsened, to the point of blindness. Further investigation found the patient had vitamin B12 deficiency, low copper and selenium levels, a high zinc level, and markedly reduced vitamin D level and bone mineral density. Since starting secondary school, the patient had consumed a limited diet of chips, crisps, white bread, and some processed pork. By the time the patient’s condition was diagnosed, the patient had permanently impaired vision.

The researchers concluded that the patient’s ‘junk food’ diet and limited intake of nutritional vitamins and minerals resulted in the onset of nutritional optic neuropathy. They suggest the condition could become more prevalent in future, given the widespread consumption of ‘junk food’ at the expense of more nutritious options, and the rising popularity of veganism if the vegan diet is not supplemented appropriately to prevent vitamin B12 deficiency.

Dr Denize Atan, the study’s lead author and Consultant Senior Lecturer in Ophthalmology at Bristol Medical School and Clinical Lead for Neuro-ophthalmology at Bristol Eye Hospital, said: “Our vision has such an impact on quality of life, education, employment, social interactions, and mental health. This case highlights the impact of diet on visual and physical health, and the fact that calorie intake and BMI are not reliable indicators of nutritional status.”

The team recommends dietary history should be part of any routine clinical examination like asking about smoking and alcohol intake. This may avoid a diagnosis of nutritional optic neuropathy being missed or delayed as some associated visual loss can fully recover if the nutritional deficiencies are treated early enough.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of BristolNote: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Rhys Harrison, Vicki Warburton, Andrew Lux, Denize Atan. Blindness Caused by a Junk Food DietAnnals of Internal Medicine, 2019; DOI: 10.7326/L19-0361


Nicotine Poisoning: Can You Overdose?

Nicotine is what keeps smokers smoking: It’s the chemical found in the leaves of tobacco plants that makes cigarettes so addictive. It’s in all cigars, smokeless tobacco (such as chew or snuff), and most electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes. Nicotine gums, patches, and lozenges have it, too.

Simply put, nicotine poisoning happens when you have too much of it in your body. The amount that causes overdose depends on things like your body weight and where the nicotine came from.

Usually, someone who gets quick, proper care will recover fully. But a severe case of poisoning could have long-lasting effects.

How Much Is Too Much?

The CDC says 50 to 60 milligrams of nicotine is a deadly dose for an adult who weighs about 150 pounds. But some research suggests a lethal amount may be a lot higher.

It’s not likely you’ll overdose on nicotine just from smoking cigarettes. Your body absorbs only about one-tenth of the nicotine in a cigarette, around 1 milligram, when you smoke it. Overdosing from nicotine gum or a patch is rare, but it’s possible if you don’t follow the instructions carefully.

Because kids are smaller, it takes less nicotine to poison them (or pets, for the same reason). There’s enough in a cigarette butt to harm your little one if they decide to eat one off the floor, for example. An older child experimenting with chewing tobacco can also overdose.

E-cigarettes pose a bigger risk. They use batteries to heat liquid nicotine — usually in a cartridge or container — into a gas or vapor so you can inhale it. Swallowing this liquid nicotine can be toxic. It can also be harmful if you spill some on your skin or get a little in your eye.

Sometimes it comes in colorful packages or smells like candy, so it’s not surprising that kids will drink it. As little as 1 teaspoon of liquid nicotine can be fatal for the average 26-pound toddler.


Nicotine poisoning usually happens in two stages. Symptoms typically last an hour or two after a mild overdose and up to 24 hours for severe poisoning. 

You’ll get early symptoms within the first 15 minutes to an hour.

Late-phase symptoms are more like winding down. They happen 30 minutes to 4 hours later.

  • Diarrhea
  • Shallow breathing
  • Slower heartbeat
  • Lower blood pressure
  • Lethargy
  • Feeling weak, slow reflexes, or unable to control muscles
  • Seizures

What to Do for Nicotine Poisoning

Call the American Association of Poison Control Center at 800-222-1222 right away if you suspect an overdose or when someone, especially a child:

  • Swallows any type of tobacco or nicotine product
  • Gets liquid nicotine in their eye
  • Spills liquid nicotine on their skin

If the person who is poisoned can’t wake up, has a hard time breathing, or has a seizure, call 911.



Many people believe electronic cigarettes (also called e-cigarettes or vapes) are a safe alternative to traditional cigarettes. But with a recent report from the U.S. surgeon general calling e-cigarette use “a major public health concern,” this may not be the case. The FDA reports an alarming 900% rise in e-cigarette use among high school students from 2011 to 2015. Get the facts on this popular, and potentially dangerous, product.

How do they work?

You don’t actually light up an e-cig; they’re powered by a rechargeable lithium battery. Instead of burning tobacco, the “e-liquid” is vaporized in a heating chamber when the user inhales.

The replaceable liquid cartridge contains nicotine mixed with a base (usually propylene glycol), along with flavorings and chemicals. The tip often contains LED lights that simulate the glow of a burning cigarette.

E-cigarettes are available in flavors like cherry, bubble gum, and cotton candy, and are allowed to be advertised on TV, which may increase their appeal for children and teens.

Are they safe?

Proponents of e-cigarettes claim they’re safer than smoking because they don’t contain the more than 60 cancer-causing chemicals in tobacco smoke. But e-cigs still deliver harmful chemicals, including nicotine, the extremely addictive substance in cigarettes. And studies show that brands claiming to be “nicotine-free” may still have trace amounts. Developing teenage brains are especially sensitive to nicotine’s addictive properties.



Close-up pouring water into glass on a blue background

ou’ve probably heard it more than once: drinking more water will help you lose more weight. But does water really help weight loss? The short answer is yes. Drinking water helps boost your metabolism, cleanse your body of waste, and acts as an appetite suppressant. Also, drinking more water helps your body stop retaining water, leading you to drop those extra pounds of water weight. What can you do to make sure you’re drinking the recommended eight to ten eight-ounce glasses per day to keep yourself hydrated and encourage weight loss?


Because water is an appetite suppressant, drinking it before meals can make you feel fuller, therefore reducing the amount of food you eat. Health resource website WebMD states that drinking water before meals results in an average reduction in intake of 75 calories per meal. Drinking water before just one meal per day would cause you to ingest 27,000 fewer calories per year. Do the math: You’d lose about eight pounds per year just from drinking water! Now imagine if you drank it before each meal. Our Gaiam Stainless Steel Water Bottle is a great way to make sure you are getting the right amount of water before a meal.


Ditch the sodas and juice and replace them with water to help you lose weight. If you think water tastes boring, add a slice of lemon. A glass of water with lemon is a recipe for successful weight loss because the pectin in lemons helps reduce food cravings. Think water doesn’t really help with weight loss? Give up those sugary drinks for just a few weeks and see the difference.


According to the editorial staff at WebMD, drinking ice cold water helps boost your metabolism because your body has to work harder to warm the water up, therefore burning more calories and helping you to lose weight. Plus, ice cold water is just so much more refreshingthan water that’s room temperature. Our new 32 oz. Stainless Steel Wide Mouth Water Bottles merge style with functionality and can ultimately give you the tools you need to start losing weight and boosting your metabolism.

merge style with functionality and can ultimately give you the tools you need to start losing weight and boosting your metabolism.


Because drinking water helps prevent muscle cramps and keeps your joints lubricated, you can work out longer and harder. Just another way that proper hydration helps you lose weight. Whether you prefer Rodney Yee’s calm guidance or Jillian Michaels’ intense push, we have plenty of options to make your weight loss strategy fit your busy lifestyle.


If you really want the water you drink to help you lose weight, you should follow the “8×8” rule recommended by most nutritionists: Drink eight eight-ounce glasses of water per day for weight loss and to maintain an ideal weight. You might need to drink more water if you exercise a lot or sweat heavily, or less water if you drink other beverages like herbal tea (make sure they are decaffeinated).

Trent Nessler, PT, DPT, MPT, managing director of Baptist Sports Medicine in Nashville, says the amount of water you need depends on your size, weight, and activity level. He adds that you should try to drink between half an ounce and an ounce of water for each pound you weigh, every day.

How do you know if you’re getting enough water? A general rule is to check the toilet after you’ve gone to the bathroom. You’ll know you’re well-hydrated if your urine is clear or very light yellow in color. The darker your urine, the more water you need to drink, especially if weight loss is your goal. Try this Water Intake Calculator to see if you’re staying hydrated enough for your weight loss goals!


Diseases, can be treated with stem cells

Stem cells help to eliminate the cause of disorders leading to a reduction in symptoms or a full recovery, depending on the initial condition, for (mostly) autoimmune disorders and/or diseases associated with tissue damage.

There is a large percentage of cases with a variety of diseases that have experienced health improvements. Applying only stem cells for some cases may be not enough. Cell therapy works more effectively when combined with other therapeutic methods that help decrease inflammation, restore mobility, activate the tissue repair process. 
We’ve seen various levels of recovery after treating the following diseases (not a full list):

Neurological disorders 

  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Dementia
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Post-stroke condition
  • Injuries of CNS
  • Lyme disease

Endocrine diseases

  • Diabetes type 2
  • Diabetic foot
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Obesity

Musculoskeletal disorders

  • Arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Sports-related injuries complications
  • Athletic performance improvement

Digestive System Diseases

  • Crohn’s disease
  • Cirrhosis of the liver
  • Peptic ulcer disease
  • Chronic pancreatitis

Respiratory diseases

  • COPD
  • Asthma
  • Allergic rhinitis 
  • Sarcoidosis 

Rheumatic diseases

  • Systemic scleroderma 
  • Dermatomyositis 
  • Rheumatoid arthritis 
  • Lupus
  • Vasculitides

It is important to understand that stem cells are not a guaranteed cure for every disease.The patient may be denied stem cell procedures for various reasons. The effectiveness of the therapy for a particular disease depends on multiple factors: duration of the illness, age of the patient, the existence of chronic conditions, hereditary predisposition, lifestyle, etc. 




I am Dr Sana Sarfaraz, i teach Pharmacology and interested most in community pharmacy. I am welcoming you in HEALTH MATRIX PROGRAM and my today’s topic is ‘SELF MEDICATION’
1.Self medication is called when taking medicine without dr’s prescription.
2.with changing season if a family member got prescription for flu/influenza/rhinitis etc, other family members will somehow tries to take same medication if got prone to same infection. this practice is considered WRONG because, antibiotic courses are highly specific for specific diseases. one must not mimic the prescription for antibiotics i.e must not start and stop the medication himself and, if have started specifically an antibiotic then, must complete it’s 3/5/7 days course inspite of, whether symptoms have disappeared completely or not. leaving the course in between can cause RESISTANCE to specific bacteria/virus.

  1. ALWAYS buy antibiotic from a store where pharmacists are standing on the counters, they will guide the patient how to take the antibiotic i.e some antibiotics are time dependent, means with in 3/5/7 days course the medication must be administered after specific period of time throughout the day otherwise, Resistance could be created. such knowledge can only be highlighted by a pharmacist if, ur dr hasn’t directed u well verbally.
  2. pharmacist will clarify the exact timings of a dose to be taken, which will result in reducing even milder side effects of an antibiotic if, patient come across with some.
  3. usually people myth about antibiotic that it can produce hotter reflux for body temperature so, they took antibiotic with cold or normal milk. this practice cannot be done typically with tetracycline and floxacins as well as with some others too because, this act can nullify their effect and in addition, will appear in side effects which can stay chronic like nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity.
  4. usually people complains of diarrhoea or constipation after taking an specific antibiotic then, a pharmacist awares his patient to take medicine before or after 2 hrs of meal. people can get rid of their smaller problems just by conversating it with a pharmacist.
  5. hygiene must be observe if prone to flu/ifluenza i.e to separate spoon, glass, plate, towel, handkerchief, bowls and any source to reduce the source of contamination. PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE!
  6. home remedies for the cure/prevention of flu like 1tsp of honey in 1 glass of warm water can reduce coughing or a pinch of dried ginger in a tsp of honey reliefs cough or a pinch of cinnamon in a tsp of honey aids to relief symptoms of flu or gargle 3-4 times by warm slightly salt water can reduce rashes effects.



Sono la dott.ssa Sana Sarfaraz, insegno farmacologia e sono molto interessata alla farmacia della comunità. Ti do il benvenuto nel PROGRAMMA MATRIX SANITARIO e il mio argomento di oggi è “AUTOTICICAZIONE”
1.Il farmaco stesso viene chiamato quando si assumono farmaci senza prescrizione medica.

  1. con il cambiare della stagione se un membro della famiglia ha ricevuto la prescrizione per influenza / influenza / rinite ecc., Altri membri della famiglia cercheranno in qualche modo di assumere lo stesso farmaco se sono inclini alla stessa infezione. questa pratica è considerata SBAGLIATA perché i corsi di antibiotici sono altamente specifici per malattie specifiche. non si deve imitare la prescrizione di antibiotici, cioè non si deve iniziare e interrompere il trattamento da soli e, se hanno iniziato specificamente un antibiotico, si deve completare il suo ciclo di 3/5/7 giorni, indipendentemente dal fatto che i sintomi siano scomparsi completamente o meno. lasciare il percorso intermedio può causare RESISTENZA a batteri / virus specifici.
  2. Acquistare SEMPRE l’antibiotico da un negozio in cui i farmacisti si trovano sui banchi, guideranno il paziente su come prendere l’antibiotico, ad esempio alcuni antibiotici dipendono dal tempo, con un corso di 3/5/7 giorni il farmaco deve essere somministrato dopo periodo di tempo durante il giorno altrimenti, si potrebbe creare la resistenza. tale conoscenza può essere evidenziata da un farmacista solo se il tuo dottore non ti ha diretto bene verbalmente.
  3. Il farmacista chiarirà i tempi esatti di una dose da assumere, il che si tradurrà in una riduzione degli effetti collaterali anche più lievi di un antibiotico se, il paziente si imbatte in alcuni.
  4. di solito le persone leggono sull’antibiotico che può produrre reflusso più caldo per la temperatura corporea, quindi hanno preso l’antibiotico con latte freddo o normale. questa pratica non può essere eseguita in genere con tetraciclina e floxacine e anche con alcuni altri perché, questo atto può annullare il loro effetto e inoltre apparirà in effetti collaterali che possono rimanere cronici come nefrotossicità, ototossicità.
  5. di solito le persone si lamentano di diarrea o costipazione dopo aver preso un antibiotico specifico, quindi un farmacista avvisa il suo paziente di assumere medicine prima o dopo 2 ore di pasto. le persone possono sbarazzarsi dei loro piccoli problemi semplicemente conversando con un farmacista.
  6. l’igiene deve essere osservata se soggetta a influenza / ifluenza, ad esempio per separare cucchiaio, bicchiere, piatto, asciugamano, fazzoletto, ciotole e qualsiasi fonte per ridurre la fonte di contaminazione. PREVENIRE È MEGLIO CHE CURARE!
  7. i rimedi casalinghi per la cura / la prevenzione dell’influenza come 1 cucchiaio di miele in 1 bicchiere di acqua calda possono ridurre la tosse o un pizzico di zenzero essiccato in un cucchiaino di tosse con rilievi di miele o un pizzico di cannella in un cucchiaino di miele aiuta a dare sollievo i sintomi dell’influenza o dei gargarismi 3-4 volte con acqua calda leggermente salata possono ridurre gli effetti delle eruzioni cutanee.



The use of nutritional supplements to induce ketosis and reduce symptoms associated with keto-induction: a narrative review



Adaptation to a ketogenic diet (keto-induction) can cause unpleasant symptoms, and this can reduce tolerability of the diet. Several methods have been suggested as useful for encouraging entry into nutritional ketosis (NK) and reducing symptoms of keto-induction. This article reviews the scientific literature on the effects of these methods on time-to-NK and on symptoms during the keto-induction phase.


PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Alt Health Watch, Food Science Source and EBSCO Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection electronic databases were searched online. Various purported ketogenic supplements were searched along with the terms “ketogenic diet”, “ketogenic”, “ketosis” and ketonaemia (/ ketonemia). Additionally, author names and reference lists were used for further search of the selected papers for related references.


Evidence, from one mouse study, suggests that leucine doesn’t significantly increase beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) but the addition of leucine to a ketogenic diet in humans, while increasing the protein-to-fat ratio of the diet, doesn’t reduce ketosis. Animal studies indicate that the short chain fatty acids acetic acid and butyric acid, increase ketone body concentrations. However, only one study has been performed in humans. This demonstrated that butyric acid is more ketogenic than either leucine or an 8-chain monoglyceride. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) increase BOHB in a linear, dose-dependent manner, and promote both ketonaemia and ketogenesis. Exogenous ketones promote ketonaemia but may inhibit ketogenesis.


There is a clear ketogenic effect of supplemental MCTs; however, it is unclear whether they independently improve time to NK and reduce symptoms of keto-induction. There is limited research on the potential for other supplements to improve time to NK and reduce symptoms of keto-induction. Few studies have specifically evaluated symptoms and adverse effects of a ketogenic diet during the induction phase. Those that have typically were not designed to evaluate these variables as primary outcomes, and thus, more research is required to elucidate the role that supplementation might play in encouraging ketogenesis, improve time to NK, and reduce symptoms associated with keto-induction.



What is Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB)?

When eating an ultra-low carbohydrate diet, the body switches from burning glucose to fat. As the liver breaks down fatty acids, it generates ketone bodies which serve as fuel for the brain, heart, and muscles in times when carbohydrates are in short supply.

In addition to eating low carb, the body also switches to running on ketones during periods of fasting, such as overnight while we sleep. Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is the most abundant of the three ketone bodies created by the liver, accounting 78% of the total ketones in the blood.[2]

Acetoacetate (AcAc) is second most prevalent ketone body, accounting for ~20% of total ketones in the blood. And last, but not least, is acetone, which accounts for a mere 2% of blood ketones. Interestingly, both BHB and acetone are derived from acetoacetate, but it’s BHB that’s primarily used for energy production while AcAc is typically excreted via sweat and respiring (breathing).


Supports Cognitive Function

While the brain only accounts for 2% of the body’s weight, it accounts for ~20% of the body’s energy needs on a daily basis. Typically the brain relies on glucose for fuel; however, during periods of low carbohydrate dieting, glucose is in short demand, which can lead to brain fog and difficulty concentrating. BHB supplies fast-acting fuel for the brain and is capable of supplying the brain with roughly 70% of its energy needs.[5] Furthermore, BHB also exerts broad neuroprotective benefits including a reduction in free radicals, decreased neuroinflammation, and improved cognition in patients with dementia

Aids Gene Expression

DNA is the biological “instruction manual” that dictates how we grow, function, and reproduce. If DNA expression becomes limited or compromised, your cells’ ability to synthesize proteins is impaired leading to a host of health complications. BHB improves gene expression by inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC), an enzyme that cleaves the acetyl group from histone proteins on DNA rendering DNA less available to transcription factors.[3]

Inhibiting HDAC improves the body’s accessibility to genes (such as FOXO and MLT1) setting off a cascade of biological activity which has been noted to lead to improvements in metabolic health, longevity, and resiliency.[3]

Combats Oxidative Stress & Inflammation

In addition to their ability to support energy production and gene expression, BHB has also been noted in certain models to support the body’s resistance to oxidative stress through upregulation of FOXO.

FOXO proteins impact a wide range of mechanisms in the body including metabolism, apoptosis, and defense against oxidative stress. Together, these affect an organism’s longevity and lifespan. BHB also inhibits NLRP3, an inflammasome that stimulates release of inflammatory molecules including IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α. Preliminary studies note that BHB is capable of reducing levels of these inflammatory biomarkers.[4]

Exogenous Ketones

Until now, we’ve been discussing ketones that are naturally produced by the body, otherwise known as endogenous ketone bodies. Ketones can also be supplemented in the form of BHB salts. BHB salts bind a molecule of BHB to a mineral such as sodium, calcium, or magnesium. When these are ingested, the body liberates the BHB to be used for energy while the minerals support a myriad of other functions in the body, such as hydration, muscle function, and blood clotting.

Now, you’re probably wondering, why would you need to supplement with BHB salts if you’re already following a ketogenic diet. Well, if a person is used to eating a very high carb diet and suddenly transitions to an ultra-low carb, ketogenic diet, it can take the body some time to get used to producing sufficient amounts of ketones to power it for its myriad of activities. While the body is “getting its act together”, flu-like symptoms can set in (lethargy, brain fog, cramping, etc). This condition in known as the keto flu.

Individuals transitioning to the keto lifestyle can supplement with exogenous ketones (in the form of BHB salts) to help ease the transition by supplying the body with readily accessible fuel. This may reduce fatigue and accelerate the body’s transition to burning fat for fuel.[6]


1. Laffel, L. (1999). Ketone bodies: a review of physiology, pathophysiology and application of monitoring to diabetes. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 15(6), 412–426.
2. Sena, S. F. (2010). Beta-hydroxybutyrate : New Test for Ketoacidosis. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine.
3. Newman JC, Verdin E. Ketone bodies as signaling metabolites. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2013;25(1):42–52. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2013.09.002
4. Goldberg EL, Asher JL, Molony RD, et al. β-Hydroxybutyrate Deactivates Neutrophil NLRP3 Inflammasome to Relieve Gout Flares. Cell Rep. 2017;18(9):2077–2087. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2017.02.004
5. White H, Venkatesh B. Clinical review: ketones and brain injury. Crit Care. 2011;15(2):219. Published 2011 Apr 6. doi:10.1186/cc10020
6. Cox, P. J., Kirk, T., Ashmore, T., Willerton, K., Evans, R., Smith, A., Clarke, K. (2016). Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes. Cell Metabolism, 24(2), 256–268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2016.07.010




OPTISANA serves 20 dispersible multivitamins containning
Vit E= 12 mg
Vit C= 80 mg
Vit B1= 1.1mg
Vit B2= 1.4mg
Vit B3= 16mg
Vit B6= 1.4mg
Vit B9= 200 micro g
Vit B12= 2.5 micro g
Vit B7/H= 50 micro g
Vit B5= 6mg 

1 bottle cost= 10 euros+shipment(according to the country)

it is also available in 2 more flavours green and blue: green one is added with magnesium(Mg) and blue is added(Ca)




Home Remedies For Thin and Watery Semen and also food that increases sperm count

1. Fructose Rich Foods
As Fructose is one of the main component of semen so a diet poor in fructose may result in thinning of semen. You can replenish your fructose deficiency by eating food rich in carbohydrates. Fruits and vegetables are rich source of fructose so try to include fresh fruits and vegetables in your diet plan. Apple, berries, pears, grapes, dates, guava, mango, pineapple and watermelon and rich sources of fructose. Cucumber, cabbage, tomato, lettuce and onions are good sources of fructose.

2. Dried Dates and Milk
Soak 5-7 dry dates(chhuhara) in milk for 2-3 hours or until they become soft. Eat them with milk daily to cure thinning of semen. Dates are excellent source of carbohydrates and dietary fibers. They also contain a good amount of Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5 and small amount of Vitamin A1. Dates(khajur) not only improve overall energy level but also increase sexual stamina and help to make your semen dense.

3. Zinc Rich Foods
Sometimes zinc deficiency also cause thinning of semen. Oyster, lamb(mutton), almonds, peanuts, pine nuts(chilgoza), cashews and sunflower seeds are good sources of Zinc.

4. Selenium Rich Foods
Selenium is also essential for proper thickening of semen. Brazil Nuts, Sunflower Seeds, Fish(salmon, sardines and tuna), Oyster, Lamb(mutton),chicken,eggs,wheat germ, barley, brown rice, oats and onion are good sources of selenium.

5. Vitamin C Rich Foods
Sometimes deficiency of vitamin C may also lead to thinning of semen. Increase your intake of Foods rich in Vitamins C. Oranges, tangerines, limes, guava, lemons, papayas, strawberries, black currants, grapefruit and mangoes, collard greens, green and red peppers, broccoli, tomatoes, brussel sprouts, cabbage, potatoes, kale, spinach(palak), and watercress are good natural food sources of Vitamin C.

6. Vitamin E Rich Foods
Vitamin E Rich Foods are also important to cure the problem of thin and watery semen. Many natural oils including olive oil, sesame, sunflower, safflower, soybean, peanut, and corn are naturally rich sources of Vitamin E. Some nuts and seeds also contain good amount of Vitamin E. Almonds, walnuts, Brazil nuts, hazelnuts, sunflower seeds are excellent examples of Vitamin E rich nuts and seeds. Butter, margarine, eggs, wheat germ, wheat germ oil, soya, yams, corn and fortified cereals are other good sources. Some green vegetables like spinach and broccoli also contain good amount of Vitamin E. Avocados, mangoes and sweet potatoes are also good sources of Vitamin E.

7. Vitamin B12 Rich Foods
Deficiency of Vitamin B12 may also lead to thin and watery semen. Try to eat foods rich in Vitamin B12. Liver, kidney, yogurt, cheese, eggs, dairy products, nonfat dry milk, fish, clams, oysters, salmon and sardines are good sources of Vitamin B12.

8. Reduce your Stress Level
Reduce your stress level because stress is also responsible for hormonal imbalance and cause thinning of semen. You can reduce your stress level by regular practice of yoga or meditation.

9. Regular Exercise Along with Healthy Foods
Exercise is important to strengthen the body muscles and and adequate production of semen. Regular exercise not only helps to overcome the problem of thin semen but also helps to reduce your overall stress level. After exercise don’t forget to fuel your body with healthy foods including fresh fruits and vegetables otherwise fructose deficiency may further lead to thinning of semen.

10. Proper Sleep
Proper and uninterrupted sleep of 6-8 hours is essential for healthy brain because only a healthy brain is able to release a balanced amount of sex hormones for proper thickening of semen.
Some Precautions and Useful Tips

(i)If you are a diabetic patient fructose rich food are hazardous to you so avoid consuming them before consulting a doctor.

(ii) Avoid Masturbation because the men who indulge in over masturbation start producing poor quality semen due to weakness of muscles. Testes require 48-72 hours to replenish sperms that`s why daily masturbation or ejaculation not only reduces the amount of semen available for each ejaculation but also reduce sperm count in semen and hence results in thinning of semen.

(iii)Maintain a gap of 3 days between two consecutive ejaculations. More times you ejaculate, the less dense your semen will be because daily ejaculation reduces the amount of semen available during each ejaculation. So for dense semen and healthy sperms have sex with your partner at least after 2 or 3 days.

(iv) Avoid Smoking because it not only damage blood vessels but also restrict the oxygen supply to blood and decrease sperm production and also decrease their life span.

(v)Avoid alcohol because it affects your liver function, which, in turn disturb hormonal levels. Even two drinks a day will have long term effects on sperm production.So strictly avoid alcohol intake.

(vi)Avoid hot baths because over heating is dangerous for sperms.

(vii)If you don’t get rid of thinning of semen by using above remedies then don’t rely only on these home remedies and consult your problems with doctor because sometimes thinning of semen may be a cause of an other underlying sexual disease.

Exercise and a healthy diet can help you to increase your sperm count. Here we gathered a list of foods that can help you to boost your sperm count :

1. Bananas

Bananas are effective at increasing sperm count, since they contain a rare enzyme called Bromelain. Bromelain is also found in pineapples, and mostly in their stem. Beromelain is a natural anti-inflammatory enzyme which also boosts greater production of the male X hormone, testosterone (Source: Dr. Oz).
Bananas are also a rich source of vitamins B1, A and C. These essential vitamins help the body enhance its sperm producing ability and increases stamina significantly.

2. Dark chocolate

Dark chocolate is not just used in seduction, but it also has enormous health benefits. According to a research published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, dark chocolate can increase the feeling of attraction between two people by releasing the same endorphins that are secreted during lovemaking.

Dark chocolate also contains L-arginine, which is also present in red meat, nuts, spinach and lentils, whole grains, soy, seafood and eggs. This amino acid is needed for sperm production and when consumed, increases sperm count and boosts semen volume. According to The University of Michigan Health System, several months of L-arginine supplementation increases sperm count, quality, and fertility.

L-arginine is also known to improve the dilation of blood vessels, which increases blood flow to the genitals, which can help the penis to enlarge. That’s the reason why men who consume dark chocolate everyday have reported stronger and more intense satisfaction peaks.

3. Garlic

Garlic has the ability to increase blood flow in the body. Garlic contains a chemical called allicin. Allicin is responsible for many of garlic’s amazing health benefits including its antimicrobial, and anti-hypertension properties. This compound prevents plaques from building up in arteries and enhances blood flow to the genital area which increases the production of sperm. Garlic also contains nitric oxide synthase, or NOS, which plays an important role in a healthy erection. Garlic provides the body with selenium and vitamin B6which are responsible for the mechanism of healthy sperm production.

4. Pomegranates

Pomegranates are useful in problems ranging from cold and flu to low sperm count. Pomegranates contain anti-oxidants that fight a chemical in the blood which destroys sperm. This chemical is known as malondialdehyde (MDA). Malondialdehyde is also found in the semen and is associated with low sperm quality. A new study published in the International Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences (2013) shows that smoking increases the levels of MDA in semen and lower the sperm count in semen.

5. Beef

Beef is a rich source of zinc which possesses protective properties that prevent free radicals from becoming part of sperm. Zinc stops testosterone from converting into estrogen which is responsible for low libido. According to Mayoclinic, daily consumption of 66 milligrams of zinc may increase sperm counts in subfertile men and 220 milligrams of daily zinc is helpful for $e*u@l dysfunction in men.

6. Walnuts

Walnuts contain arginine that helps in the increased production of sperm and also boosts semen volume. Walnuts also contain Omega-3 fatty acids which help increase blood flow to the penis. They also possess twice the antioxidant power of other nuts. An amazing fact about walnuts is that having 7 walnuts a day lowers cholesterol and the risk of heart attack.

7. Spinach

Spinach has many health benefits and is easily available. Green leafy vegetables like spinach contain high amounts of folic acid. Vegetables enriched in folic acid help contribute to sperm count. They also make sperms healthier and increase their motility.

8. Fruit Salad

Fruits like oranges, strawberries, cherries, and other antioxidant-rich fruits are effective in boosting sperm count and preventing damage to sperm. Eating a fruit salad helps you absorb all the nutrients of fruits at one time. By making eating fruits a habit, it can help counteract free radical damage. The semen of men who take up to 1000 mgs of vitamin C daily has less clumping than that of their deficient counterparts. This increases motility and the chances of fertilization.

9. Egg

Eggs help increase sperm count and improve fertility. Eggs are rich in vitamin E, a deficiency of which is responsible for testicular tissue degeneration.
The antioxidant quality of vitamin E helps counteract the negative effects of free radicals on sperm and egg and therefore this vitamin is considered one of the most important nutrients for fertility.

10. Water

The simplest way to improve your sperm count is to drink ample water each day. It’s necessary to keep your body hydrated in order to boost the functioning of cells, including sperm. Drinking 8 to 10 glasses of water a day can help your sperm to go a long way


Kneel and Joint Pain Reliever Smoothies

Get the following Items,
👉 Pineaaple
👉 Cinnamon
👉 Honey
👉 Orange Juice
👉 Water.

Cut the pineapple (quarter of a whole pineapple) into pieces and placed in a blender.
Add a tablespoon of Cinnamon into the content of the blender.
Add Two tablespoons of Honey
Add Quarter of a cup of orange juice
And water to ease the blending.

Blend untill it is as smooth as your blender can allow.

Dosage:Take a cup full of this mixture once daily for five days. You should be very okay before the fifth day.

Contraindications: Pregnant women should pls avoid this. Suitable for all other persons.



Sperm cells are either X or Y. The Egg cell is always X. If X-Sperm cell meets the egg(X) the baby will be a Girl (XX). If Y-Sperm cell meets the egg(X), the baby will be a Boy (XY). The Y-Sperm cells move fast but die fast (its lifespan is about 24hrs). X-Sperm cells move slowly but survive longer (up to 3-4days). 

Therefore, if you have intercourse some days before ovulation, most of the Y-Sperm cells would have died leaving mostly X-Sperm cells to fertilized the egg

Here’s a simple way to calculate your ovulation period.

1. From the first day you see the blood of your period.
2. Pick up a calendar and count 15 days including the first day of the blood stain.
3. Mark the 15th day with a pen.
4. Mark 3 days before the 15th day, and mark 3 days after the 15th day.
6. You will notice you have 7 days marked.
These 7 days are your ovulation/fertile days also known as unsafe period.
That is if you have sex on any of these days, then you have 98% chances of being pregnant.
7. Do this every month diligently
For Example
1. If your period is 11th July, ,
2. 15 days after the first day of the blood stain will be on 25th of this July too (2weeks after) counting from 11th.
3. 15th day is on the 25th July 
4. 3days before the 15th day is 22, 23, 24.
5. 3days after 25th July is 26,27,28.
6. 22-28th July (7days) is when you are ovulating. It is your fertile period.
**Don’t forget that the 4 days is a reminder that sperm stays in the female body for about 4 days. Any sexual contact in between ovulation period will form something …
If you want a baby girl, have
sex between 3 days before ovulation (22- 24th) 
Female sperm swim slowly but can stay inside woman body for days without dying off, 

For a baby boy on the main ovulation day and 3 days after 25th.(26,27,28)
Male sperm swim very fast but will get weak and die off if no egg found for a while leaving female sperm to finish the job .

You don’t need a doctor, just relax. After 2 weeks you may feel the following:
1. Headache.
2. High body temperature.
3. Dizziness (feeling of tiredness and sleepiness).
4. Breast tenderness/ size increases just like when you are menstruating.
5. Increased sex drive.
6. Light cramps or pain on one side of the pelvis.
7. Abdominal bloating.
8. Heightened sense of smell, taste or vision (you eat more).
9. Vagina mucus becomes slippery (if you notice, put it in between fingers…it stretches like thick catarrh or snail mucus…colorless like egg white. 
N/B: The instance here is for ladies with 30 days cycle. And someone who saw her period in July . If yours is 28, then it’s 14 days and not 15 days.



What’s a “normal” menstrual cycle?

Your menstrual cycle lasts from the first day of your period to the first day of your next period. The average menstrual cycle is about 25-30 days, but it can be as short as 21 days or longer than 35 — it’s different from person to person. The number of days in your cycle may also vary from month to month. When you get your period, it’s normal to bleed anywhere from 2 to 7 days.

The average person loses anywhere between 1-6 tablespoons of menstrual fluid during each period. It can be thin or clumpy, and varies in color from dark red to brown or pink. (When you first start having your period, it may last only a few days or be super light.) If your period is so heavy that you have to change maxi pads or super tampons every hour, call your doctor or your local Planned Parenthood health center.

Everyone’s body is different, so their periods are different too — what’s “normal” varies from person to person, and can change over your lifetime. Some birth control methods or health conditions may also affect your period.

What if I miss a period?

A missed period is one of the first signs of pregnancy, but it doesn’t always mean you’re pregnant. Sometimes you skip a period for no reason at all, especially during the first few years of your period. Lots of other things can throw off your regular cycle and mess with the timing of your period. These include:

  • Using hormonal birth control, like the pill, patch, ring, implant, and hormonal IUD
  • Taking the morning after pill
  • Changes in your hormones
  • Being sick
  • Taking certain medicines
  • Exercising too much
  • Poor diet and nutrition
  • Stress
  • Sudden weight gain or loss
  • Having very little body fat, which can happen if you’re an athlete or have an eating disorder
  • Menopause (when your period stops for good)

Take a pregnancy test if you had unprotected sex and then missed your period. Just missing your period isn’t a foolproof way to know that you’re pregnant — a pregnancy test is the only way to find out for sure. You can get a pregnancy test at drugstores or your local Planned Parenthood health center.

Hormonal birth control can affect your cycle, and even make your period stop altogether. If you’ve been using your birth control correctly or are on a highly effective method (like the IUD or implant), it’s very, very unlikely that a missed period means you’re pregnant. But you can always take a pregnancy test to be sure.

What if my period is irregular?

It’s really common to have irregular menstrual cycles at some point in your life — especially when you first start getting your period.

Examples of irregular periods include:

  • Missing a period altogether
  • Your period coming early or late
  • Different PMS symptoms
  • Heavier or lighter bleeding than usual
  • Bleeding longer than usual
  • Unpredictable timing of periods from month to month

Keeping track of your periods and symptoms on a menstrual cycle calendar or in an app is good way to learn what’s normal for your body, and help you know if anything changes.

Some people’s periods are irregular a lot. It may just be the way their body naturally works, or it can be caused by a health problem. If many of your periods are irregular, unpredictable, or abnormal, talk with a doctor to make sure everything’s okay. They can also help you find a hormonal birth control method that may help make your period lighter and/or more regular.

When should I see a doctor about my menstrual cycle?

Contact your doctor or your local Planned Parenthood health center if:

  • You’re worried that you might be pregnant because you’ve had unprotected sex and missed your period.
  • Your period is so heavy that you have to change maxi pads or super tampons every hour.
  • Your period lasts much longer than usual, or longer than 7 days.  
  • You’re light-headed, dizzy, or your pulse is racing.
  • You’re 16 years old and still haven’t gotten your period.
  • You have severe pain before or during your period.
  • You have unusual bleeding between periods.
  • You suddenly feel sick or get a fever when using a tampon.
  • Your periods or PMS keeps you from your normal day-to-day activities.
  • Your periods stop or suddenly become irregular.
  • Your period comes more often than every 21 days or less often than every 45 days.
  • You get very anxious or depressed around the time you get your period.

Where can I go for help if I’m having problems with my period?

You can talk with your family doctor or gynecologist if you’re having a painful menstrual cycle or are worried about period symptoms or PMS. You can also visit a community health clinic or your local Planned Parenthood health center.



When does begin it end?

The menstrual cycle is the hormonal driven cycle; Day 1 is the first day of your period (bleeding) while day 14 is the approximate day you ovulate and if an egg is not fertilized, hormone levels eventually drop and at about day 25; the egg begins to dissolve and the cycle begins again with the period at about day 30. Menstruation begins day 1 and normally ends days 3-5 of the menstrual cycle.



Do you know when your last menstrual period began or how long it lasted? If not, it might be time to start paying attention.

Tracking your menstrual cycles can help you understand what’s normal for you, time ovulation and identify important changes — such as a missed period or unpredictable menstrual bleeding. While menstrual cycle irregularities usually aren’t serious, sometimes they can signal health problems.

What’s the menstrual cycle?

The menstrual cycle is the monthly series of changes a woman’s body goes through in preparation for the possibility of pregnancy. Each month, one of the ovaries releases an egg — a process called ovulation. At the same time, hormonal changes prepare the uterus for pregnancy. If ovulation takes place and the egg isn’t fertilized, the lining of the uterus sheds through the vagina. This is a menstrual period.

What’s normal?

The menstrual cycle, which is counted from the first day of one period to the first day of the next, isn’t the same for every woman. Menstrual flow might occur every 21 to 35 days and last two to seven days. For the first few years after menstruation begins, long cycles are common. However, menstrual cycles tend to shorten and become more regular as you age.

Your menstrual cycle might be regular — about the same length every month — or somewhat irregular, and your period might be light or heavy, painful or pain-free, long or short, and still be considered normal. Within a broad range, “normal” is what’s normal for you.

Keep in mind that use of certain types of contraception, such as extended-cycle birth control pills and intrauterine devices (IUDs), will alter your menstrual cycle. Talk to your health care provider about what to expect.

When you get close to menopause, your cycle might become irregular again. However, because the risk of uterine cancer increases as you age, discuss any irregular bleeding around menopause with your health care provider.

How can I track my menstrual cycle?

To find out what’s normal for you, start keeping a record of your menstrual cycle on a calendar. Begin by tracking your start date every month for several months in a row to identify the regularity of your periods.

If you’re concerned about your periods, then also make note of the following every month:

  • End date. How long does your period typically last? Is it longer or shorter than usual?
  • Flow. Record the heaviness of your flow. Does it seem lighter or heavier than usual? How often do you need to change your sanitary protection? Have you passed any blood clots?
  • Abnormal bleeding. Are you bleeding in between periods?
  • Pain. Describe any pain associated with your period. Does the pain feel worse than usual?
  • Other changes. Have you experienced any changes in mood or behavior? Did anything new happen around the time of change in your periods?

What causes menstrual cycle irregularities?

Menstrual cycle irregularities can have many different causes, including:

  • Pregnancy or breast-feeding. A missed period can be an early sign of pregnancy. Breast-feeding typically delays the return of menstruation after pregnancy.
  • Eating disorders, extreme weight loss or excessive exercising. Eating disorders — such as anorexia nervosa — extreme weight loss and increased physical activity can disrupt menstruation.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with this common endocrine system disorder may have irregular periods as well as enlarged ovaries that contain small collections of fluid — called follicles — located in each ovary as seen during an ultrasound exam.
  • Premature ovarian failure. Premature ovarian failure refers to the loss of normal ovarian function before age 40. Women who have premature ovarian failure — also known as primary ovarian insufficiency — might have irregular or occasional periods for years.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). This infection of the reproductive organs can cause irregular menstrual bleeding.
  • Uterine fibroids. Uterine fibroids are noncancerous growths of the uterus. They can cause heavy menstrual periods and prolonged menstrual periods.

What can I do to prevent menstrual irregularities?

For some women, use of birth control pills can help regulate menstrual cycles. Treatment for any underlying problems, such as an eating disorder, also might help. However, some menstrual irregularities can’t be prevented.

In addition, consult your health care provider if:

  • Your periods suddenly stop for more than 90 days — and you’re not pregnant
  • Your periods become erratic after having been regular
  • You bleed for more than seven days
  • You bleed more heavily than usual or soak through more than one pad or tampon every hour or two
  • Your periods are less than 21 days or more than 35 days apart
  • You bleed between periods
  • You develop severe pain during your period
  • You suddenly get a fever and feel sick after using tampons

If you have questions or concerns about your menstrual cycle, talk to your health care provider.



Captured from the wild, shipped to America and only having known a life of misery as a circus elephant, Mary was murdered on September 13,1916. She was beat by her trainer yet again the day before she died; Mary had enough, killing the trainer. That day they named her Murderous Mary. That night they shot her but she did not die; instead her beat and shot body spent the night in horrific pain. The next day they hung her in front of a cheering crowd of 2,500 people, mostly children. On the first try the crane gave way and Mary fell to the ground and snapped her hip. They lifted her by the neck again. It took over 10 minutes for Mary to die. Mary was murdered more than 100 years ago but for animals in entertainment, nothing has changed. What we do to elephants and others for a cheap thrill is truly unforgivable. Their is no glory in stolen freedom. #boycottthecircus#boycottthezoo#emptythecages




Heat stroke can kill or cause damage to the brain and other internal organs. Although heat stroke mainly affects people over age 50, it also takes a toll on healthy young athletes.

Heat stroke often occurs as a progression from milder heat-related illnesses such as heat cramps, heat syncope (fainting), and heat exhaustion. But it can strike even if you have no previous signs of heat injury.

Heat stroke results from prolonged exposure to high temperatures — usually in combination with dehydration — which leads to failure of the body’s temperature control system. The medical definition of heat stroke is a core body temperature greater than 104 degrees Fahrenheit, with complications involving the central nervous system that occur after exposure to high temperatures. Other common symptoms include nauseaseizures, confusion, disorientation, and sometimes loss of consciousness or coma.

Here’s what we’ve seen: 

  • Temperatures hit 38.6 C (101.5 F) in Coschen, near the German-Polish border, setting a new German national record for June, The Associated Press (AP) reported. 
  • Four out of five measuring stations across the Czech Republic have seen new daily records being set this week, with the temperature in the northern town of Doksany reaching a national high of 38.5 C (101.3 F). 
  • Most of France is expecting temperatures of at least 35 C (95 F) on Thursday, the national weather agency Météo France reported
  • Areas in southern France are forecast to reach as high as 44 C (111.2 F) on Friday, Météo France said. It could break the country’s highest-ever temperature of 44.1 C (111.4 F), which was recorded in August 2003. 
  • Temperatures in Milan are forecast to hit 40 C (104 F) this week, the AP reported. 
  • Berlin is expecting temperatures as high as 38 C (100 F) on Thursday, the BBC said. Major cities like Frankfurt and Hamburg are also expecting temperatures in the mid-30s Celsius (about 95 F). 
  • Most of Spain is expecting temperatures in the mid-30s Celsius (mid-to late 90s F) on Thursday, with the northern cities of Lleida, Logroño, and Zaragoza forecast to hit 41 C (105.8 F), according to government weather agency Aemet
  • Many locations in Switzerland broke their June temperature records on Wednesday, national weather agency Météo Suisse said. Large swaths of Switzerland are expecting temperatures of more than 35 C (95 F) on Thursday. 
  • Temperatures in Portugal are expected to hit mid-to-upper 30 degrees Celsius (upper 90s Fahrenheit) and could further rise to more than 40 C (104 F), Axios reported
  • Parts of Poland are also expected to see temperatures rise to at least 35 to 40 C (95 to 105 F) this week — which is at least 11 to 17 C (20 to 30 F) above normal, The Washington Post reported.

Symptoms of Heat Stroke

The hallmark symptom of heat stroke is a core body temperature above 104 degrees Fahrenheit. But fainting may be the first sign.

Other symptoms may include:



A company in Japan is paying its employees to get a full night’s sleep.

Bloomberg reports a wedding organizer in Japan called “Crazy Inc.” is awarding points to employees who sleep six hours a night or more for at least five days a week.

Points can be exchanged for food in the company cafeteria.

Nightly rest is tracked using an app.

According to a Japanese survey more than 90 percent of people there over the age of 20 say that they don’t get enough sleep.


The amount of sleep a person needs depends on many factors, including age. In general:

  • Infants (ages 0-3 months) require 14-17 hours a day.
  • Infants (ages 4-11 months) require 12-15 hours a day
  • Toddlers (ages 1-2 years) require about 11-14 hours a day.
  • Pre-school children (ages 3-5) require 10-13 hours a day.
  • School-age children (ages 6-13) require 9-11 hours a day.
  • Teenagers (ages 14-17) need about 8-10 hours each day.
  • Most adults need 7 to 9 hours a night for the best amount of sleep, although some people may need as few as 6 hours or as many as 10 hours of sleep each day.
  • Older adults (ages 65 and older)need 7-8 hours of sleep each day.
  • Women in the first 3 months of pregnancy often need several more hours of sleep than usual.

However, experts say that if you feel drowsy during the day, even during boring activities, you haven’t had enough sleep.

Sleep Debt

The amount of sleep a person needs also increases if he or she has been deprived of sleep in previous days. Getting too little sleep creates a “sleep debt,” which is much like being overdrawn at a bank. Eventually, your body will demand that the debt be repaid.

We don’t seem to adapt to getting less sleep than we need. While we may get used to a sleep-depriving schedule, our judgment, reaction time, and other functions are still impaired.

Consequences of Too Little Sleep

Too little sleep may cause:

  • Memory problems
  • Feeling depressed
  • A weakening of your immune system, increasing your chance of becoming sick
  • Increase in perception of pain

Effects of metformin use in pregnant patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. PCOS produces symptoms in approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age (12–45 years old) and is thought to be one of the leading causes of the female subfertility. PCOS is a medical condition, in which there is an imbalance of the female sex hormones i.e. elevated levels of testosterone, DHEA-S, androstenedione, prolactin, and LH along with a normal, high or low estrogen levels. According to the Rotterdam criteria, a diagnosis of PCOS can be made in a woman if she has 2 of the following 3 manifestations: Irregular or absent ovulation, elevated levels of androgenic hormones, and/or enlarged ovaries containing at least 12 follicles each. Other conditions with similar presenting signs, such as androgen-secreting tumors or Cushing’s syndrome, must be ruled out before a diagnosis of PCOS is established. Controversies in continuation of metformin therapy throughout pregnancy, in women who have conceived after treatment of PCOS, has remained a controversial topic till date. This literature gives an insight into the problem.

Hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance are very common in women with PCOS, particularly in those with a body mass index (BMI) > 30, but insulin resistance may occur in lean women with PCOS. An insulin action in the ovary is mediated via the insulin receptor rather than the type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor, which binds IGF-I with high affinity and insulin with low affinity. Hyperinsulinaemia has shown to increase androgen production by the ovaries and hence it may play a central role in the pathogenesis of PCOS.

Use of metformin throughout pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has shown to reduce the rates of early pregnancy loss, preterm labor, and prevention of fetal growth restriction. Metformin has been shown to have encouraging effects on several metabolic aspects of polycystic ovarian syndrome, such as insulin sensitivity, plasma glucose concentration and lipid profile and since women with PCOS are more likely than healthy women to suffer from pregnancy-related problems like early pregnancy loss, gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertensive states in pregnancy, the use of metformin therapy in these patients throughout pregnancy may have beneficial effects on early pregnancy loss and development of gestational diabetes.



Scope of the problem

Antibiotic resistance is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world. New resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading globally, threatening our ability to treat common infectious diseases. A growing list of infections – such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, blood poisoning, gonorrhoea, and foodborne diseases – are becoming harder, and sometimes impossible, to treat as antibiotics become less effective.

Where antibiotics can be bought for human or animal use without a prescription, the emergence and spread of resistance is made worse. Similarly, in countries without standard treatment guidelines, antibiotics are often over-prescribed by health workers and veterinarians and over-used by the public.

Without urgent action, we are heading for a post-antibiotic era, in which common infections and minor injuries can once again kill.

Prevention and control

Antibiotic resistance is accelerated by the misuse and overuse of antibiotics, as well as poor infection prevention and control. Steps can be taken at all levels of society to reduce the impact and limit the spread of resistance.


To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, individuals can:

  • Only use antibiotics when prescribed by a certified health professional.
  • Never demand antibiotics if your health worker says you don’t need them.
  • Always follow your health worker’s advice when using antibiotics.
  • Never share or use leftover antibiotics.
  • Prevent infections by regularly washing hands, preparing food hygienically, avoiding close contact with sick people, practising safer sex, and keeping vaccinations up to date.
  • Prepare food hygienically, following the WHO Five Keys to Safer Food (keep clean, separate raw and cooked, cook thoroughly, keep food at safe temperatures, use safe water and raw materials) and choose foods that have been produced without the use of antibiotics for growth promotion or disease prevention in healthy animals. 

Health professionals 

To prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance, health professionals can:

  • Prevent infections by ensuring your hands, instruments, and environment are clean.
  • Only prescribe and dispense antibiotics when they are needed, according to current guidelines.
  • Report antibiotic-resistant infections to surveillance teams.
  • Talk to your patients about how to take antibiotics correctly, antibiotic resistance and the dangers of misuse.
  • Talk to your patients about preventing infections (for example, vaccination, hand washing, safer sex, and covering nose and mouth when sneezing).


generic or brand medicine is not different by formula. it is a myth that they both have different quality grades that’s why one must always buy brand\genericmedicine according what so ever one has chosen since time has begun. let Sapere clear it for u, drug is made up of 2 ingredients i.e active + excipients. any company who is importing its material from abroad pays a HEAVY TAX. The quality grade may vary 0-1\0.1-1 for that imported ingredient but, there is no major quality difference other wise, the medicine will never going to be approved by country’s ministry of health to get marketed!